Backstage Pass with Lia Chang

Geoffrey Holder, Artist, Actor, Dancer, Choreographer, Two-Time Tony Award-winning Director and Costume Designer for The Wiz, Dies at 84; Son Pens Intimate Account of Last Days

Geoffrey Holder. Michael Tighe—Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Geoffrey Holder. Michael Tighe—Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Broadway to Dim Lights for Geoffrey Holder on Friday, October 10th at 7:45 P.M.
The world lost a true renaissance man when Geoffrey Holder, the Tony Award-winning Trinidadian director, actor, costume designer, painter, dancer, author, graphic designer, photographer and choreographer, died from complications of pneumonia at Mount Sinai St. Luke’s Hospital in New York at the age of 84 on Sunday, October 5, 2014.

Geoffrey Lamont Holder was born in Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tabago, on August 1, 1930, one of four children of Louise de Frense and Arthur Holder, who had immigrated from Barbados. He attended Queen’s Royal College, an elite secondary school in Trinidad. Under the tutelage of his older brother, Boscoe, Holder learned painting and began dancing as a member of the Holder Dance Company when he was seven years old.

During a career that spanned seven decades, Holder is best known for leading the groundbreaking show The Wiz, the all-African American retelling of The Wizard of Oz to Broadway, and garnering Tony Awards for Best Costume Design and Best Director in 1975, presented to him by Ray Bolger, the original Scarecrow in the 1939 MGM musical The Wizard of Oz. Holder made history as the first African American man to be nominated in either category. He also received the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Costume Design.

At a towering 6’6” and with his Trinidadian basso and hearty laugh, Holder was a popular presence on TV as a spokesman on the 1970s and -80s 7-Up “Uncola” advertising campaigns.

Geoffrey Holder as Baron Samedi in the James Bond thriller, Live and Let Die. © 1973 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Geoffrey Holder as Baron Samedi in the James Bond thriller, Live and Let Die. © 1973 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Holder is remembered for his performances as Baron Samedi in the James Bond thriller Live and Let Die (1973), as Punjab in Annie (1982), and as the Genie in Cole Porter and S.J. Perelman’s television musical Aladdin (1954).

In 1952, the choreographer Agnes de Mille saw Holder dance in St. Thomas. She invited him to New York; he would teach at the Katherine Dunham School of Dance for two years.

In 1954, Holder made his Broadway debut in House of Flowers, a musical by Harold Arlen (music and lyrics) and Truman Capote (lyrics and book), where he met and fell in love with dancer Carmen De Lavallade. They married in 1955 and for the next two years, performed as principal dancers for the Metropolitan Opera Ballet. In 1956, he formed his own troupe, Geoffrey Holder and Company.  He is featured in an Afro-Cuban dance sequence from the movie Carib Gold (1956), filmed in Key West, Florida.

He also starred in an all-black production of Waiting for Godot in 1957.

As a choreographer, Geoffrey Holder has created dances and done staging for many companies, including the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater, The Dance Theatre of Harlem, and The Boys’ Choir of Harlem and Friends.

Holder with wife Carmen de Lavallade. photo by Carl Van Vechten, 1955

Holder with wife Carmen de Lavallade. photo by Carl Van Vechten, 1955

He is featured in the film documentaries, Geoffrey Holder: The Unknown Side by Andrzej Krakowski in 2002, Carmen and Geoffrey by Linda Atkinson and Nick Doob, The History Makers by Nancy Oey, Prentice Sinclair Smith in 2005; Joséphine Baker: Black Diva in a White Man’s World by Annette von Wangenheim in 2006 and Broadway: Beyond the Golden Age by Rick McKay (2015). A massive coffee-table book with 250 illustrations, Geoffrey Holder: A Life in Theater, Dance and Art, by Jennifer Dunning, was published by Abrams in 2002.

Holder co-authored (with Tom Harshman) and illustrated a collection of Caribbean folklore, Black Gods, Green Islands, in 1959, and followed it several years later with a book of recipes titled Geoffrey Holder’s Caribbean Cookbook (1973).  A book of his photography, Adam, was published by Viking in 1986.

Holder won a Guggenheim Fellowship in fine arts in 1956 and is a 1972 recipient of the Trinidad & Tobago Humming Bird Gold Medal for Dance.

Geoffrey Holder and Phylicia Rashad at The Black Stars of The Great White Way Broadway Reunion: Live The Dream at Carnegie Hall in New York on June 23, 2014. Photo by Lisa Pacino

Geoffrey Holder and Phylicia Rashad at The Black Stars of The Great White Way Broadway Reunion: Live The Dream at Carnegie Hall in New York on June 23, 2014. Photo by Lisa Pacino

Phylicia Rashad presented Geoffrey Holder with the inaugural Black Stars of the Great White Way Award at The Black Stars of The Great White Way Broadway Reunion: Live The Dream at Carnegie Hall on June 23, 2014, which featured performances by André De Shields wearing Holder’s original costume design from the Broadway production, choreographer George Faison and more celebrating the 40th Anniversary of The Wiz on Broadway.

Photos & Video: The Wiz’s André De Shields Sang “So You Wanted to Meet the Wizard” in The Black Stars of The Great White Way Broadway Reunion: Live The Dream at Carnegie Hall 

Sources: Read Geoffrey Holder’s bio by Lucy E. Cross at Geoffrey Holder and Wikipedia.

He is survived by his wife, dancer Carmen De Lavallade, whom he met while working on House of Flowers on Broadway in 1954 and married in 1955, and their son, Léo, who penned this intimate account of his father’s last days.

Geoffrey Holder 1930-2014

October 5, 2014

A little more than a week after developing pneumonia, Geoffrey Holder made a decision. He was calling the shots as always. He was done. 2 attempts at removing the breathing tube didn’t show promising results. In his truest moment of clarity since being rolled into I.C.U. he said he was good. Mouthing the words “No, I am not afraid” without a trace of negativity, sadness or bitterness, he sincerely was good with it. He had lived the fullest life he could possibly live, a 70 + year career in multiple art forms, and was still creating. Still painting, a bag of gold (of course) fabric and embellishments in his room for a new dress for my mother, sculptures made out of rope, baseball caps and wire hangers. New ideas every second, always restlessly chasing his too fertile mind. A week of breathing tubes and restrained hands had forced him to communicate with only cryptic clues which I was fortunate enough to be able to decipher at best 40% of the time. The fact that we all struggled to understand him enraged him to the point that he could sometimes pull tantrums taking up to 4 people to restrain him from pulling out the wires. He was head strong (understatement), but he was also physically strong. Iron hand grip that no illness could weaken. 9 days of mouthing words that, because of the tubes, produced no sound forcing him to use his eyes to try to accentuate the point he was trying to make. But this didn’t mean he wasn’t still Geoffrey Holder. This didn’t mean an end to taking over. Holding court as he always did. Directing and ordering people around. Choreographing. Getting his way. We still understood that part, and the sight of his closest friends and extended family brought out the best in him. Broad smiles in spite of the tubes, nodding approval of anything that met his standard (which was very high), and exuding pride and joy in all those in whom he saw a spark of magic and encouraged to blossom. The week saw a parade for friends from all over the world checking in to see him, hold is hand, rub his head, and give him the latest gossip. But he was still trying to tell me something, and although I was still the best at deciphering what he was saying, I still wasn’t getting it.

Photo by Margo Astrachan/courtesy of Carmen De Lavallade's Facebook Page.

Photo by Margo Astrachan/courtesy of Carmen De Lavallade’s Facebook Page.

Saturday night I had a breakthrough. After a good day for him, including a visit by Rev. Dr. Forbes, Senior Minister Emeritus of Riverside Church who offered prayer and described Geoffrey’s choreography as prayer itself, which made him beam, I brought in some music. “Bill Evans with Symphony Orchestra”, one of his all time favorites. He had once choreographed a piece to one of the cuts on the album… a throwaway ballet to fill out the program, but the music inspired him. From his bed, he started to, at first sway with the music, then the arms went up, and Geoffrey started to dance again. In his bed. Purest of spirits. Still Geoffrey Holder. Then he summoned me to take his hands, and this most unique dancer / choreographer pulled himself up from his bed as if to reach the sky. It was then I broke the code: he was telling me he was going to dance his way out. Still a Geoffrey Holder production. If it had been up to him, this evening’s solo would have been it. The higher he pulled himself up, the higher he wanted to fly. I had to let him down. Not yet. There are friends and family coming in from out of town. He resignedly shrugged his shoulders, closed his eyes and went to sleep.

I got it. Really. I got it. I walked out of the hospital elated. Ate a full meal for the first time in days, slept like a baby after. The next day would be his last. I was not sad. It wasn’t stressful for me to deal with him in this state. It was an honor and a privilege to tend to anything he needed. This impromptu dance was his dress rehearsal.

Next morning, I show up early. Possible second thoughts? Should we wait? What if he changes his mind? Did he understand what we were talking about here? Thoroughly. Mind as clear as crystal. “You still game for our dance tonight?” A nod, a smile, and a wink, with tubes still down his throat. We’re still on. But he still wants to do it NOW. NOT later. He’s cranky. Sulks a while. Sleeps a while. Eventually snaps out of it.

From noon on, a caravan of friends and family from all over the globe comes through the ICU wing. Ages 1 to 80. Young designers and artists he nurtured and who inspired him. Younger dancers he encouraged to always play to the rear balcony with majesty. The now “elder statesmen” dancers on whom he built some of his signature ballets. His rat pack of buddies. Wayward saints he would offer food, drink, a shoulder to cry on, a couch to sleep it off, and lifetime’s worth of deep conversation and thought. Closest and oldest friends. Family.

They know they are here to say goodbye. He knows they are here to say goodbye. He greets them beaming with joy to see them. By this time I’m reading his lips better and am able to translate for him as much as I can. The last of them leave. It’s time for his one true love to have her time with him. His muse. Her champion. This is their time. 59 years distilled into 5 minutes of the gentlest looks and words as she caresses his noble brow one last time. She puts a note she wrote to him in is hand. She leaves.

Everyone is gone except me. My moment. I will be with him as he goes.

One more time: “you good?” Nod & faint smile. ‘you ready?” He is.

I have asked the doctors to not start the morphine drip right away, because I want him to have his solo on his own time. Knowing him, he might stop breathing right after his finale. For dramatic effect. He’s still Geoffrey Holder.

They remove the tube that has imprisoned him for the past 9 days and robbed this great communicator of the ability to speak. I remove the mittens that prevent his hands from moving freely.

I start the music, take his hands and start leading him, swaying them back and forth. And he lets go of me. He’s gonna wing it as he was prone to do when he was younger. Breathing on his own for the last time, Geoffrey Holder, eyes closed, performs his last solo to Bill Evans playing Faure’s Pavane. From his deathbed. The arms take flight, his beautiful hands articulate through the air, with grace. I whisper “shoulders” and they go into an undulating shimmy, rolling like waves. His Geoffrey Holder head gently rocks back and forth as he stretches out his right arm to deliver his trademark finger gesture, which once meant “you can’t afford this” and now is a subtle manifestation of pure human spirit and infinite wisdom. His musical timing still impeccable, bouncing off the notes, as if playing his own duet with Evan’s piano. Come the finale, he doesn’t lift himself of the bed as he planned; instead, one last gentle rock of the torso, crosses his arms and turns his head to the side in a pose worthy of Pavlova. All with a faint, gentile smile.

The orchestra finishes when he does. I loose it.

They administer the morphine drip and put an oxygen mask over his face. and I watch him begin taking his last breaths.

I put on some different music. I sit and watch him sleep, and breathe… 20 minutes later, he’s still breathing albeit with this gurgling sound you can hear though the mask. Another several minutes go by, he’s still breathing. Weakly, but still breathing… then his right hand starts to move. It looks like he’s using my mother’s note like a pencil, scratching the surface of the bed as if he’s drawing. This stops a few minutes later, then the left hand begins tapping. Through the oxygen mask the gurgling starts creating it’s own rhythm. Not sure of what I’m hearing, I look up to see his mouth moving. I get closer to listen: “2, 3, 4….2, 3, 4… He’s counting! It gets stronger, and at it’s loudest sounds like the deep purr of a lion, then he says “Arms, 2, 3, 4, Turn, 2, 3, 4, Swing, 2, 3, 4, Down, 2, 3, 4….”

Geoffrey Holder with his wife Carmen De Lavallade.

Geoffrey Holder with his wife Carmen De Lavallade.

I called my mother at home, where she was having a reception in his honor. She picks up. There are friends and family telling Geoffrey stories simultaneously laughing and crying in the background.

“Hi, honey, Are you alright?”

“Yes actually… he hasn’t stopped breathing yet.” I tell her about his solo, which brings her to a smile and a lightening of mood. I continue:

“Can I ask you a question?”

“Sure Honey. What?

“Who the hell did you marry?”

“What do you mean?”

“You’re not gonna believe this. He’s got a morphine drip, going on over half an hour, an oxygen mask on, his eyes closed, AND HE’S CHOREOGRAPHING!”

This brings her to her first laugh of the day. She now knows we will be alright.

(AFP OUT) Geoffrey Holder and his son, Leo Holder, arrive for the formal artist's dinner for the Kennedy Center Honors at the United States Department of State December 4, 2010 in Washington, D.C. (December 3, 2010 - Source: Pool/Getty Images North America)

(AFP OUT) Geoffrey Holder and his son, Leo Holder, arrive for the formal artist’s dinner for the Kennedy Center Honors at the United States Department of State December 4, 2010 in Washington, D.C.
(December 3, 2010 – Source: Pool/Getty Images North America)

He continues on like this for quite a while, and a doctor comes in to take some meter readings of the machines. I ask the doctor if this is normal. As she begins to explain to me about the process, his closed eyes burst open focused straight on us like lasers and he roars with all his might: ”SHUT UUUUUUUUUUUUUP!!! YOU’RE BREAKING MY CONCENTRATION!!!!!!!”

We freeze with our mouths open. He stares us down. long and hard.

Then he closes his eyes again, “Arms, 2, 3, 4, Turn, 2, 3, 4, Swing, 2, 3, 4, Down, 2, 3, 4…”

He continued counting ’til it faded out, leaving only the sound of faint breathing, slowing down to his very last breath at 9:25 pm

Still Geoffrey Holder.

The most incredible night of my life.

Thank you for indulging me.

Love & best,


“SIMPLY MARVELOUS” – Geoffrey Holder
A rare performance and glimpse into the “private life and philosophy” of this multifaceted celebrity. This is a clip from his “nightclub act” that was filmed at Joe’s Pub at the Public Theater, New York City.
Produced & Directed by Richard Currier.

“Geoffrey Holder – An American Treasure” a short documentary film
Within this short documentary film Geoffrey’s paintings and costumes are on exhibit at retrospective of his works at the Mexican Embassy in Washington D.C. We later hear him speak to dignitaries at the gallery opening reception. These events are intercut with Geoffrey rehearsing his original ballet “The Prodigal Prince” with the Alvin Ailey Dance Company.
Produced, Written and Directed by: Aleta Chappelle
Director of Photography: Horacio Marquinez & Alex Kopit

Other articles by Lia Chang:
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Cheryl L. Davis’ Maid’s Door Sweeps AUDELCOs with 7 Wins; Complete List of 2014 AUDELCO Recipients
Baryshnikov Arts Center Presents New York Premiere of Carmen De Lavallade’s Solo Show AS I REMEMBER IT in February 2015
Photos: André De Shields, Dee Dee Bridgewater, Ken Page, Charl Brown, Carly Hughes, Alton Fitzgerald White, Lillias White in 40th Anniversary of The WIZ Tribute at BC/EFA’s GYPSY OF THE YEAR; Competition Breaks Records With Over $5 Million as Hugh Jackman’s THE RIVER Brings in Top Donation
Q & A with Danny Ramm, Co-writer of Joe Mantegna Helmed ‘Criminal Minds’ Season 10 Episode to Honor the late Meshach Taylor; Airs January 21, 2015
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Crafting a Career
Click here for the Lia Chang Articles Archive and here for the Lia Chang Photography Website.

Lia Chang Photo by GK

Lia Chang Photo by GK

Lia Chang is an actor, a performance and fine art botanical photographer, and an award-winning multi-platform journalist. Lia starred as Carole Barbara in Lorey Hayes’ Power Play at the 2013 National Black Theatre Festival in Winston-Salem, N.C., with Pauletta Pearson Washington, Roscoe Orman, and made her jazz vocalist debut in Rome Neal’s Banana Puddin’ Jazz “LADY” at the Nuyorican Poets Cafe in New York. She is profiled in Jade Magazine.

All text, graphics, articles & photographs: © 2000-2014 Lia Chang Multimedia. All rights reserved. All materials contained on this site are protected by United States copyright law and may not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, displayed, published or broadcast without the prior written permission of Lia Chang. You may not alter or remove any trademark, copyright or other notice from copies of the content. For permission, please contact Lia at

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